Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences


EPS101 Fossil Kit

Carbonate Rocks

Fossil Preservation

Direct

Indirect


Fossils

Fossil Taxonomy

Geologic Time Scale

Sedimentary Structures

Siliclastic Rocks

Unconformities



Coquina

Coquina

Grain Size: coarse
Composition Class: biochemical (organic)
Composition: shells
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Dolomite

Dolomite

Grain Size: fine
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: dolomite
Environment: varies
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Fossilerous Micrite

Fossilerous Micrite

Grain Size: fine to medium
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcareous mud
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Fossilerous Sparite

Fossilerous Sparite

Grain Size: coarse to crystalline
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcite
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Intraclastic Micrite

Intraclastic Micrite

Grain Size: fine to medium
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcareous mud and clasts
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Intraclastic Sparite

Intraclastic Sparite

Grain Size: coarse to crystalline
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcite and clasts
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Micrite

Micrite

Grain Size: fine to medium
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcareous mud
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Sparite

Sparite

Grain Size: coarse to crystalline
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcite
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid

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Oolitic Limestone

Oolitic Limestone

Grain Size: coarse
Composition Class: chemical (inorganic)
Composition: calcite and ooids
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: effervescence with hydrochloric (HCL) acid, composed mainly of ooids

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Carbonization

Carbonization

High temperatures and pressures expel hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen leaving a carbon residue

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Complete

Complete

Intact preservation of an organism by natural processes

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Permineralization

Permineralization

Filling of an organism's pore spaces by minerals

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Recrystallization

Recrystallization

The physical change of unstable minerals into stable ones

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Replacement

Replacement

The removal of original mineral and filling of the space with a different mineral

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Unaltered

Unaltered

The original fossil has not changed during preservation and were originally composed of mineral material such as apatite, calcite, opal, aragonite

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Coprolites

Coprolites

Fossil excrement made by an organism

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Molds

Molds

An external or internal impression of the remains of an organism. A cast is made by filling of an internal mold

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Trace Fossils

Trace Fossils

Trail, track, or borrow made by an organism

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Ammonoid

Ammonoid×

Blastoid

Blastoid×

Brachiopod

Brachiopod×

Crinoid

Crinoid×

Gastropod

Gastropod×

Graptolites

Graptolites×

Mammalia

Mammalia×

Nautiloidea

Nautiloidea×

Pelecypoda

Pelecypoda×

Pisces

Pisces×

Sand Dollar

Sand Dollar×

Tabulata

Tabulata×

Trilobite

Trilobite ×

Fossil Taxonomy List

Kingdom Monera - bacteria, cyanobacteria

Kingdom Protista
      Phylum Protozoa
        Class Sarcodina - amoebas -
              Order Foraminiferida - amoebas with calcite skeletons -
              Order Radiolaria - amoebas with opal skeletons

Kingdom Fungi - fungi

Kingdom Plantae - green plants and algae
      Phylum Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts
      Phylum Tracheophyta - vascular or land plants

Kingdom Animalia - animals
      Phylum Porifera - sponges (Proterozoic - recent)
      Phylum Cnidaria
          Class Scyphozoa - jellyfish
          Class Anthozoa - corals
              Order Rugosa (Ordovician - Permian)
              Order Scleractinia (Triassic - recent)
              Order Tabulata (Ordovician - Permian)
      Phylum Bryozoa - bryozoans (Ordovician - recent)
      Phylum Brachiopoda - brachiopods
          Class Inarticulata - brachiopods with unhinged valves (Cambrian - recent)
          Class Articulata - brachiopods with hinged valves (Cambrian - recent)
      Phylum Mollusca
          Class Polyplacophora - chitons
          Class Scaphopoda - tusk shells
          Class Gastropoda - snails (Cambrian - recent)
          Class Pelecypoda (Bivalvia) - clams (Cambrian - recent)
          Class Cephalopoda - cephalopods
              Subclass Nautiloidea (Cambrian - recent)
              Subclass Ammonoidea (Devonian - Cretaceous)
              Subclass Coleoidea - squids and octopuses
      Phylum Arthopoda
          Class Trilobita - trilobites (Cambrian - Permian)
          Class Ostracoda - ostracodes (Cambrian - recent)
          Class Insecta - insects (Devonian - recent)
      Phylum Echinodermata
          Class Blastoidea - blastoids (Ordovician - Permian)
          Class Crinodea - sea lilies and feather stars (Cambrian - recent)
          Class Asteroidea - star fish
          Class Echinoidea - sea urchins and sand dollars (Ordovician - recent)
      Phylum Hemichordata
          Class Graptolithina - graptolites (Cambrian - Mississippian)
      Phylum Chordata - mainly vertebrate animals
          Class Pisces - fish (Ordovician - recent)
          Class Amphibia - amphibians (Devonian - recent)
          Class Reptilia - reptiles (Pennsylvanian - recent)
          Class Aves - birds (Jurassic - recent)
          Class Mammalia - mammals (Triassic - recent)

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Geologic Time Scale Chart

Geologic Time Scale Chart ×

Cross-bedding

Cross-bedding

A series of laminae lying concave up and obliquely to the main bedding planes that are created by wind or water currents

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Graded Bedding

Graded Bedding

A fining upward succession of stratified sediment caused by the settling of heavier grains or minerals

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Liesegang Rings

Liesegang Rings

Rhythmic precipitation of secondary minerals within a fluid saturated rock that commonly is exposed as bands or rings

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Mud Cracks

Mud Cracks

Irregular fractures (commonly pentagonal) that are formed by the desiccation of clay-rich sediment or soil

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Raindrop Imprints

Raindrop Imprints

Small, shallow impressions formed in soft sediment caused by the impact of falling rain

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Salt Crystals

Salt Crystals

Crystals of salt that form by the evaporation of seawater

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Stratification

Stratification

Horizontal layering at time of deposition caused by compaction and differences in mineralogy, grain size, or grain sorting of the different layers

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Stromatolites

Stromatolites

A multi-layered, rounded sedimentary feature formed by microbial mats, which is a type of trace fossil

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Trace Fossils

Trace Fossils

A trail, track, borrow, or structure made by an organism

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Breccia

Breccia

Grain Size: coarse
Composition Class: clastic (terrigenous)
Composition: sand to boulders
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: angular grains

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Conglomerate

Conglomerate

Grain Size: coarse
Composition Class: clastic (terrigenous)
Composition: sand to boulders
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: rounded grains

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Sandstone

Sandstone

Grain Size: medium to coarse
Composition Class: clastic (terrigenous)
Composition: sand
Environment: high energy
Other Properties: rough texture

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Shale

Shale

Grain Size: fine
Composition Class: clastic (terrigenous)
Composition: clay minerals
Environment: low energy
Other Properties: smooth texture

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Siltstone

Siltstone

Grain Size: fine to medium
Composition Class: clastic (terrigenous)
Composition: silt and clay minerals
Environment: medium energy
Other Properties: silty texture

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Angular Unconformity

Angular Unconformity

Younger strata rest upon older, folded or titled strata
(Ordovician-Silurian contact - Catskill, NY)

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Disconformity

Disconformity

Strata above and below an erosional surface are parallel
(Trenton-Black River contact - Lebanon, TN)

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Nonconformity

Nonconformity

Younger strata test upon older, metamorphic or igneous rocks
(Precambrian-Cambrian contact - Alexander Bay, NY)

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